Techniques of Composition


Symmetry appears when parts of your composition mirror other parts. It is created when two halves of your scene look the same and balance each other out. Symmetry can be a powerful composition tool as it makes the image appealing and also because it would draw the attention of the viewer to your image.

You can compose symmetry in a scene when you divide the picture horizontally or vertically along the center. if one side reflects the other, then we can say that the image is using symmetrical composition. The other side does not need to be an exact reflection copy. You can use this rule for photographing buildings and structures

When you have scenes that have the potential to be very symmetrically aligned, it’s important to make them line up. If you cannot do this in the field, then giving yourself room to do it in post-processing can work just as well. If you’re going to go against symmetry, it’s important to go over the top so the viewer knows that you did it on purpose. When the symmetry is off by just a little bit, it can make your composition look lazily constructed. 


Balance is a compositional technique in photography that involves arranging the main subject and other elements within the frame of a photograph so that everything in the image has equal visual weight. visual weight refers to the object(s) within the image that draws the views eye.


Repetition in photography means using repeating shapes or a repetitive pattern inside the frame as part of the composition. Repetition can also be the image’s main subject instead of just being a tool for photography composition. It also helps to emphasize something or to create an ambience. make sure there are other interesting things at play besides the pattern, such as colours, textures and contrast 


In Perspective composition, an object is made to appear larger, smaller, closer, or farther away than it actually is. Tunnel vision for photographers is very real, especially when there’s something awesome going on even though you may have found the perfect angle for your shot, you need to see what other options are around. You can always come back and take that iconic shot again when the lighting changes. In the meantime, experiment by getting higher, getting lower, even laying down! Change the angle of your camera so that you get a different perspective of the scene. 

In photography, this type of composition is used to take amusing and creative pictures that trick the eye into seeing something that isn't truly there, giving the scene a surreal, dreamy feel.

Zooming (in & out)

This is different to just filling the frame. This technique requires you to find the most interesting parts of a scene and make the image about that section of the image.

Sometimes, powerful images can be made by compressing a scene and zooming in, thus eliminating possible distractions from your composition. On the flip side, sometimes your lens won't give you the ability to incorporate all the best parts of the scene into a single shot. The best image might be made by zooming out and going wider. 

It's very important to note the difference between Zooming and Cropping.

Zooming, is changing the length of your lens to create the final composition. Zooming happens in the field, while you are taking a photograph. Cropping, on the other hand, is changing the photograph itself, after it has been taken, by selecting a smaller section of the original photograph to make the final image. Zooming happens with your lens or with your feet; cropping happens on your computer.


Framing in photography refers to the process of composing a picture. It involves choosing what you'll include in the frame and what you'll leave out. The goal is to create a pleasing composition that directs the viewer's attention to the subject matter.

There are many different ways to frame a photograph. One common method is to use foreground elements to create a literal frame. For example, you could position your subject so trees or branches surround the edge of the photo, or you could use a doorway or window as a natural frame.

Another way to frame a photo is by using Lines. Leading lines are natural or manmade lines that lead into the distance, such as roads, railways, rivers, or paths. They can help give your photo a sense of depth and perspective. Now you can employ any of the composition 'Rules' or 'Elements' while framing, the end goal is to create beautiful and captivating images that tell a story or conveys the story behind the image.


When you are overwhelmed by a grand scene and there is too much going on, try to ask yourself, “what do I find the MOST interesting here?” Then make the entire image about that.

Keep it simple... show the viewer JUST the thing you want. Not every image has to have a killer foreground with three or four subjects leading into an amazing sky in order to keep your viewer interested. 

Rules & Ratios

In photography, there are a lot of “golden” rules and ratios that can be used to help highlight points of interest in your composition. These ratios divide the frame into the key areas by using lines and curves where your eye is naturally more likely to go.

The point of these ratios is to help you to place elements within a composition where the eye of the viewer is most likely to gravitate, as well as to put subjects in angles and positions where they may help to draw the eye around the frame. 

Rule of Thirds

The Rule of Thirds uses key intersection points and breaks the scene up into thirds vertically and horizontally. In the grid where these lines intersect are the points where you should try to put your main subjects. 

Golden Spiral

The golden spiral is another method that people often use to compose a shot. A curve starts from the corners and goes across the upper portion of the frame, spiralling towards the middle and the bottom. The concept is that movement and subjects should all fall on the curve and your most interesting portion of the frame should align closely with the middle of the spiral in the lower quadrant of the frame. 

Golden Triangle

Golden Triangles are yet another composition technique that photographers use to break the scene up and put emphasis on certain areas of the frame. This involves drawing a diagonal line from one corner to the other of the image, and then from that line, two more lines come from the remaining corners to connect them together. Where the shorter lines touch the larger middle line are the areas where the most interesting parts of your composition should be lined up.